1. Tim Blanning,The Pursuit of Glory (New York:Penguin Books, 2008), 52.?????????

2. 同上,53.并请参见: J. Neumann and S. Lindgreacute;n, lsquo;Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather:4, The Great Famines in Finland and Estonia, 1695ndash;97rsquo;,Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 60 (1979), 775ndash;87; Andrew B. Appleby, lsquo;Epidemics and Famine in the Little Ice Agersquo;,Journal of Interdisciplinary History 10:4 (1980):643ndash;63; Cormac Oacute; Graacute;da and Jean-Michel Chevet, lsquo;Famine and Marke tinAncien Reacute;gime Francersquo;,Journal of Economic History 62:3 (2002), 706ndash;73.?????????

3. Nicole Darmon et al., lsquo;Lrsquo;inseacute;curiteacute; alimentaire pour raisons financiegrave;res en Francersquo;,Observatoire National de la Pauvreteacute; et de lrsquo;Exclusion Sociale ,https:///read/001358178ec47d2018425, accessed 4 March 2015.?????????

4. Richard Dobbs et al., lsquo;How the World Could Better Fight Obesityrsquo;, McKinseys amp; Company, November, 2014, accessed 11 December 2014,Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),U. Ivanov / CC-BY-SA 3.0.Licensed under CC BYSA 3.0 via Commons,https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RIAN_archive_848095_Signing_the_Agreement_to_eliminate_the_USSR_and_establish_the_Commonwealth_of_Independent_States.jpg#/media/File:RIAN_archive_848095_Signing_the_Agreement_to_eliminate_the_USSR_and_establish_the_Commonwealth_of_Independent_States.jpg.


1. Fekri A. Hassan, lsquo;Holocene Lakes and Prehistoric Settlements of the Western Fayum, Egyptrsquo;,Journal of Archaeological Science 13:5 (1986), 393ndash;504; Gunther Garbrecht, lsquo;Water Storage (Lake Moeris) in the Fayum Depression, Legend or Reality?rsquo;,Irrigation and Drainage Systems 1:3 (1987), 143ndash;57; Gunther Garbrecht, lsquo;Historical Water Storage for Irrigation in the Fayum Depression (Egypt)rsquo;,Irrigation and Drainage Systems 10:1 (1996), 47ndash;76.?????????

2. Yehuda Bauer,A History of the Holocaust (Danbur:Franklin Watts, 2001), 249.?????????

3. Jean C. Oi,State and Peasant in Contemporary China:The Political Economy of Village Government (Berkeley:University of California Press, 1989), 91; Jasper Becker,Hungry Ghosts:China rsquo;s Secret Famine (London:John Murray, 1996); Frank Dikkoter,Mao rsquo;s Great Famine:The History of China rsquo;s Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958 ndash;62 (London:Bloomsbury, 2010).?????????

4. Martin Meredith,The Fate of Africa:From the Hopes of Freedom to the Heart of Despair:A History of Fifty Years of Independence (New York:Public Affairs, 2006); Sven Rydenfelt, lsquo;Lessons from Socialist Tanzaniarsquo;,The Freeman 36:9 (1986); David Blair, lsquo;Africa in a Nutshellrsquo;,Telegraph , 10 May 2006, accessed 22 December 2014,http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/davidblair/3631941/Africa_in_a_nutshell/.

5. Roland Anthony Oliver,Africa sin ce 1800 , 5th edn (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2005), 100ndash;23; David van Reybrouck,Congo:The Epic History of a People (New York:HarperCollins, 2014), 58ndash;9.?????????

6. Ben Wilbrink, lsquo;Assessment in Historical Perspectiversquo;,Studies in Educational Evaluation 23:1 (1997), 31ndash;48.?????????

7. M. C. Lemon,Philosophy of History (London and New York:Routledge, 2003), 28ndash;44; Siep Stuurman, lsquo;Herodotus and Sima Qian:History and the Anthropological Turn in Ancient Greece and Han Chinarsquo;,Journal of World History 19:1 (2008), 1ndash;40.?????????

8. William Kelly Simpson,The Literature of Ancient Egypt (Yale:Yale University Press, 1973), 332ndash;3.?????????


1. C. Scott Dixon,Protestants:A History from Wittenberg to Pennsylvania, 1517 ndash;1740 (Chichester, UK:Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), 15; Peter W. Williams,America rsquo;s Religions:From Their Origins to the Twenty-First Century (Urbana:University of Illinois Press, 2008), 82.?????????

2. Antichrist1 by Lucas Cranach the Elder.Original uploader was Epiphyllumlover at en.wikipedia ndash; transferred from en.wikipedia (Original text:Google Books).Licensed under Public Domain via Commons,https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Antichrist1.jpg#/media/File:Antichrist1.jpg?????????

3. Glenn Hausfater and Sarah Blaffer, ed.,Infanticide:Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives (New York:Aldine, 1984), 449; Valeria Alia,Names and Nunavut:Culture and Identity in the Inuit Homeland (New York:Berghahn Books, 2007), 23; Lewis Petrinovich,Human Evolution, Reproduction and Morality (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 1998), 256; Richard A. Posner,Sex and Reason (Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 1992), 289.?????????

4. Ronald K. Delph, lsquo;Valla Grammaticus, Agostino Steuco, and the Donation of Constantinersquo;,Journal of the History of Ideas 57:1 (1996), 55ndash;77; Joseph M. Levine, lsquo;Reginald Pecock and Lorenzo Valla on the Donation of Constantinersquo;,Studies in the Renaissance 20 (1973), 118ndash;43.?????????

5. Gabriele Boccaccini,Roots of Rabbinic Judaism (Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2002); Shaye J. D. Cohen,From the Maccabees to the Mishnah , 2nd edn (Louisville:Westminster John Knox Press, 2006), 153ndash;7; Lee M. McDonald and James A. Sanders, ed.,The Canon Debate (Peabody:Hendrickson, 2002), 4.?????????

6. Sam Harris,The Moral Landscape:How Science Can Determine Human Values (New York:Free Press, 2010).?????????


1. Gerald S. Wilkinson, lsquo;The Social Organization of the Common Vampire Bat IIrsquo;,Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 17:2 (1985), 123ndash;34; Gerald S. Wilkinson, lsquo;Reciprocal Food Sharing in the Vampire Batrsquo;,Nature 308:5955 (1984), 181ndash;4; Raul Flores Crespo et al., lsquo;Foraging Behavior of the Common Vampire Bat Related to Moonlightrsquo;,Journal of Mammalogy 53:2 (1972), 366ndash;8.?????????

2. Goh Chin Lian, lsquo;Admin Service Pay:Pensions Removed, National Bonus to Replace GDP Bonusrsquo;,Straits Times , 8 April 2013, retrieved 9 February 2016,http:///singapore/admin-service-pay-pensions-removednational-bonus-to-replace-gdp-bonus.

3. Edward Wong, lsquo;In China, Breathing Becomes a Childhood Riskrsquo;,New York Times , 22 April 2013, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///2013/04/23/world/asia/pollution-is-radically-changing-childhood-in-chinascities.html?pagewanted=allamp;_r=0; Barbara Demick, lsquo;China Entrepreneurs Cash in on Air Pollutionrsquo;,Los Angeles Times , 2 February 2013, accessed 22 December 2014,http://articles.latimes.com/2013/feb/02/world/la-fg-chinapollution-20130203.

4. IPCC,Climate Change 2014:Mitigation of Climate Change ndash; Summery for Policymakers , Ottmar Edenhofer et al., ed., (Cambridge and New York:Cambridge University Press, 2014), 6.?????????

5. UNEP,The Emissions Gap Report 2012 (Nairobi:UNEP, 2012); IEA,Energy Policies of IEA Countries:The United States (Paris:IEA, 2008).?????????

6. For a detailed discussion see Ha-Joon Chang,23 Things They Don rsquo;t Tell You About Capitalism (New York:Bloomsbury Press, 2010).?????????


1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau,Eacute;mile, ou de l rsquo;eacute;ducation (Paris, 1967), 348.?????????

2. lsquo;Journalists Syndicate Says Charlie Hebdo Cartoons ;Hurt Feelings;, Washington Okaysrsquo;,Egypt Independent , 14 January 2015, accessed 12 August 2015,http:///news/journalists-syndicatesays-charlie-hebdo-cartoons-per centE2per cent80per cent98hurt-feelingswashington-okays.

3. Naomi Darom, lsquo;Evolution on Steroidsrsquo;,Haaretz , 13 June 2014 .?????????

4. Walter Horace Bruford,The German Tradition of Self-Cultiva- tion: lsquo;Bildung rsquo; from Humboldt to Thomas Mann (London, New York:Cambridge University Press, 1975), 24, 25.?????????

5. lsquo;All-Time 100 TV Shows:Survivor rsquo;,Time , 6 September 2007, retrieved 12 August 2015,http://time.com/3103831/survivor/.

6. Phil Klay,Redeployment (London:Canongate, 2015), 170.?????????

7. Yuval Noah Harari,The Ultimate Experience:Battlefield Revelations and the Making of Modern War Culture, 1450 ndash;2000 (Houndmills:Palgrave Macmillan, 2008); Yuval Noah Harari, lsquo;Armchairs, Coffee and Authority:Eyewitnesses and Flesh-witnesses Speak about War, 1100ndash;2000rsquo;,Journal of Military History 74:1 (January 2010), 53ndash;78.?????????

8. lsquo;Angela Merkel Attacked over Crying Refugee Girlrsquo;, BBC, 17 July 2015, accessed 12 August 2015,http:///news/world-europe-33555619.

9. Laurence Housman,War Letters of Fallen Englishmen (Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania State, 2002), 159.?????????

10. Mark Bowden,Black Hawk Down:The Story of Modern Warfare (New York:New American Library, 2001), 301ndash;2.?????????

11. Adolf Hitler,Mein Kampf , trans.Ralph Manheim (Boston:Houghton Mifflin, 1943), 165.?????????

12. Evan Osnos,Age of Ambition:Chasing Fortune, Truth and Faith in the New China (London:Vintage, 2014), 95.?????????

13. Mark Harrison, ed.,The Economics of World War II:Six Great Powers in International Comparison (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1998), 3ndash;10; John Ellis,World War II:A Statistical Survey (New York:Facts on File, 1993); I. C. B Dear, ed.,The Oxford Companion to the Second World War (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1995).?????????

14. lsquo;Saigon-hubert-van-esrsquo; by Source.Licensed under fair use via Wikipedia,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Saigon-hubert-van-es.jpg#/media/File:Saigon-hubert-van-es.jpg.

15. Donna Haraway, lsquo;A Cyborg Manifesto:Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Centuryrsquo;, inSimians, Cyborgs and Women:The Reinvention of Nature , ed. Donna Haraway (New York:Routledge, 1991), 149ndash;81.


1. 详细讨论请见Michael S. Gazzaniga,Who rsquo;s in Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brain (New York:Ecco, 2011).?????????

2. Chun Siong Soon et al., lsquo;Unconscious Determinants of Free Decisions in the Human Brainrsquo;,Nature Neuroscience 11:5 (2008), 543ndash;5.See also Daniel Wegner,The Illusion of Conscious Will (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2002); Benjamin Libet, lsquo;Unconscious Cerebral Initiative and the Role of Conscious Will in Voluntary Actionrsquo;,Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (1985), 529ndash;66.?????????

3. Sanjiv K. Talwar et al., lsquo;Rat Navigation Guided by Remote Controlrsquo;,Nature 417:6884 (2002), 37ndash;8; Ben Harder, lsquo;Scientists ;Drive;Rats by Remote Controlrsquo;,National Geographic , 1 May 2012, accessed 22 December 2014,http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/05/0501_020501_roborats.html; Tom Clarke, lsquo;Here Come the Ratbots:Desire Drives Remote-Controlled Rodentsrsquo;,Nature , 2 May 2002, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///news/1998/020429/full/news020429ndash;9.html; Duncan Graham-Rowe, lsquo;;Roborat;Controlled by Brain Electrodesrsquo;,New Scientist , 1 May 2002, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///article/dn2237ndash;roboratcontrolled-by-brain-electrodes.html#.UwOPiNrNtkQ.


5. Smadar Reisfeld, lsquo;Outside of the Cuckoorsquo;s Nestrsquo;,Haaretz , 6 March 2015.?????????

6. Dan Hurley, lsquo;US Military Leads Quest for Futuristic Ways to Boost IQrsquo;,Newsweek , 5 March 2014,http:///2014/03/14/usmilitary-leads-quest-futuristic-ways-boost-iq-247945.html, accessed 9 January 2015; Human Effectiveness Directorate,http:///science/2014/jan/04/can-i-increasemy-brain-power, accessed 9 January 2016; Heather Kelly, lsquo;Wearable Tech to Hack Your Brainrsquo;, CNN, 23 October 2014,http:///2014/10/22/tech/innovation/brain-stimulation-tech/. accessed 9 January 2016.?????????

7. Sally Adee, lsquo;Zap Your Brain into the Zone:Fast Track to Pure Focusrsquo;,New Scientist , 6 February 2012, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///article/mg21328501.600ndash;zap-your-brain-into-the-zone-fast-track-to-pure-focus.html.同时参见: R. Douglas Fields, lsquo;Amping Up Brain Function:Transcranial Stimulation Shows Promise in Speeding Up Learningrsquo;,Scientific American , 25 November 2011, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///article/amping-up-brain-function.

8. Sally Adee, lsquo;How Electrical Brain Stimulation Can Change the Way We Thinkrsquo;,The Week, 30 March 2012, accessed 22 December 2014,http://theweek.com/article/index/226196/how-electrical-brain-stimulation-can-change-the-waywe-think/2.

9. E. Bianconi et al., lsquo;An Estimation of the Number of Cells in the Human Body,rsquo;Annals of Human Biology 40:6 (2013):463ndash;71.?????????

10. Oliver Sacks,The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (London:Picador, 1985), 73ndash;5.?????????

11. Joseph E. LeDoux, Donald H. Wilson, Michael S. Gazzaniga, lsquo;A Divided Mind:Observations on the Conscious Properties of the Separated Hemispheresrsquo;,Annals of Neurology 2:5 (1977), 417ndash;21.同时参见: D. Galin, lsquo;Implications for Psychiatry of Left and Right Cerebral Specialization:A Neurophysiological Context for Unconscious Processesrsquo;,Archives of General Psychiatry , 31:4 (1974), 572ndash;83; R. W. Sperry, M. S. Gazzaniga and J. E. Bogen, lsquo;Interhemispheric relationships:The Neocortical Commisures:Syndromes of Hemisphere Disconnectionrsquo;, inHandbook of Clinical Neurology , ed. P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn (Amsterdam:North Holland Publishing Co., 1969), vol. 4.?????????

12. Michael S. Gazzaniga,The Bisected Brain (New York:AppletonCentury-Crofts, 1970); Gazzaniga,Who rsquo;s in Charge? ; Carl Senior, Tamara Russell, and Michael S. Gazzaniga,Methods in Mind (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2006); David Wolman, lsquo;The Split Brain:A Tale of Two Halvesrsquo;,Nature 483 (14 March 2012):260ndash;3.?????????

13. Galin, lsquo;Implications for Psychiatry of Left and Right Cerebral Specializationrsquo;, 573ndash;4.?????????

14. Springer and Deutsch,Left Brain, Right Brain, 3rd edn (New York:W. H. Freeman, 1989), 32ndash;6.?????????

15. Kahneman,Thinking, Fast and Slow , 377ndash;410.同时参见Gazzaniga,Who rsquo;s in Charge? , ch. 3.?????????

16. Eran Chajut et al., lsquo;In Pain Thou Shalt Bring Forth Children:The Peakand-End Rule in Recall of Labor Painrsquo;,Psychological Science 25:12 (2014), 2266ndash;71.?????????

17. Ulla Waldenstrouml;m, lsquo;Womenrsquo;s Memory of Childbirth at Two Months and One Year after the Birthrsquo;,Birth 30:4 (2003), 248ndash;54; Ulla Waldenstrouml;m, lsquo;Why Do Some Women Change Their Opinion about Childbirth over Time?rsquo;,Birth 31:2 (2004), 102ndash;7.?????????

18. Gazzaniga,Who rsquo;s in Charge? , ch. 3.?????????

19. Jorge Luis Borges,Collected Fictions , translated by Andrew Hurley (New York:Penguin Books, 1999), 308ndash;9.西班牙版本请见: Jorge Luis Borges, lsquo;Un problemarsquo;, inObras completas , vol. 3 (Buenos Aires:Emece Editores, 1968ndash;9), 29ndash;30.?????????

20. Mark Thompson,The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919 (New York:Basic Books, 2009).?????????


1. F. M. Anderson, ed.,The Constitutions and Other Select Documents Illustrative of the History of France:1789ndash;1907 , 2nd edn (Minneapolis:H. W. Wilson, 1908), 184ndash;5; Alan Forrest, lsquo;Lrsquo;armeacute;e de lrsquo;an II: la leveacute;e en masse et la creacute;a tion drsquo;un m y t he reacute; pu b li cainrsquo;,A n na le s hi s to ri que s de la Reacute;vo lu tion f ran cai s 335 (2004), 111ndash;30.?????????

2. Morris Edmund Spears, ed.,World War Issues and Ideals:Readings in Contemporary History and Literature (Boston and New York:Ginn and Company, 1918), 242.还有一项最重要的近期研究,得到正反双方的一致广泛引用,也尝试证明民主体制的士兵战斗力较强: Dan Reiter and Allan C. Stam,Democracies at War (Princeton:Princeton University Press, 2002).?????????

3. Doris Stevens,Jailed for Freedom (New York:Boni and Liveright, 1920), 290.同时参见Susan R. Grayzel, Women and the First World War (Harlow:Longman, 2002), 101ndash;6; Christine Bolt,The Women rsquo;s Movements in the United States and Britain from the 1790s to the 1920s (Amherst:University of Massachusetts Press, 1993), 236ndash;76; Birgitta Bader-Zaar, lsquo;Womenrsquo;s Suffrage and War:World War I and Political Reform in a Comparative Perspectiversquo;, inSuffrage, Gender and Citizenship:International Perspectives on Parliamentary Reforms , ed. Irma Sulkunen, Seija-Leena Nevala-Nurmi and Pirjo Markkola (Newcastle upon Tyne:Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009), 193ndash;218.?????????

4. Matt Richtel and Conor Dougherty, lsquo;Googlersquo;s Driverless Cars Run Into Problem:Cars With Driversrsquo;,New York Times , 1 September 2015, accessed 2 September 2015,http:///2015/09/02/technology/personaltech/google-says-its-not-the-driverless-cars-fault-its-other-drivers.html?_r=1; Shawn DuBravac,Digital Destiny:How the New Age of Data Will Transform the Way We Work, Live and Communicate (Washington DC:Regnery Publishing, 2015), 127ndash;56.?????????

5. Bradley Hope, lsquo;Lawsuit Against Exchanges Over ;Unfair Advantage;for High-Frequency Traders Dismissedrsquo;,Wall Street Journal ,29 April 2015, accessed 6 October 2015,http:///articles/lawsuit-against-exchanges-overunfair-advantage-for-high-frequency-traders-dismissed-1430326045; David Levine, lsquo;High-Frequency Trading Machines Favored Over Humans by CME Group, Lawsuit Claimsrsquo;,Huffington Post , 26 June 2012, accessed 6 October 2015,http:///2012/06/26/high-frequency-tradinglawsuit_n_1625648.html; Lu Wang, Whitney Kisling and Eric Lam, lsquo;Fake Post Erasing $136 Billion Shows Markets Need Humansrsquo;, Bloomberg, 23 April 2013, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///news/2013ndash;04ndash;23/fake-report-erasing-136ndash;billion-shows-market-s-fragility.html; Matthew Philips, lsquo;How the Robots Lost:High-Frequency Tradingrsquo;s Rise and Fallrsquo;,Bloomberg Businessweek , 6 June 2013, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///printer/articles/123468ndash;how-the-robots-lost-high-frequencytradings-rise-and-fall; Steiner,Automate This , 2ndash;5, 11ndash;52; Luke Dormehl,The Formula:How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems ndash; And Create More (London:Penguin, 2014), 223.?????????

6. Jordan Weissmann, lsquo;iLawyer:What Happens when Computers Replace Attorneys?rsquo;,Atlantic , 19 June 2012, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///business/archive/2012/06/ilawyer-what-happens-whencomputers-replace-attorneys/258688; John Markoff, lsquo;Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Softwarersquo;,New York Times , 4 March 2011, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=allamp;_r=0; Adi Narayan, lsquo;The fMRI Brain Scan:A Better Lie Detector?rsquo;,Time , 20 July 2009, accessed 22 December 2014,http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1911546ndash;2,00.html; Elena Rusconi and Timothy Mitchener-Nissen, lsquo;Prospects of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Lie Detectorrsquo;,Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:54 (2013); Steiner,Automate This ,217; Dormehl,The Formula , 229.?????????

7. B. P. Woolf,Building Intelligent Interactive Tutors:Student-centered Strategies for Revolutionizing E-learning (Burlington:Morgan Kaufmann, 2010); Annie Murphy Paul, lsquo;The Machines are Taking Overrsquo;,New York Times , 14 September 2012, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///2012/09/16/magazine/how-computerized-tutors-are-learning-to-teachhumans.html?_r=0; P. J. Munoz-Merino, C. D. Kloos and M. Munoz-Organero, lsquo;Enhancement of Student Learning Through the Use of a Hinting Computer e-Learning System and Comparison With Human Teachersrsquo;,IEEE Transactions on Education 54:1 (2011), 164ndash;7;Mindojo , accessed 14 July 2015,http://mindojo.com/.

8. Steiner,Automate This , 146ndash;62; Ian Steadman, lsquo;IBMrsquo;s Watson Is Better at Diagnosing Cancer than Human Doctorsrsquo;,Wired , 11 February 2013, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///blogs/wonkblog/post/how-robots-will-replace-doctors/2011/08/25/gIQASA17AL_blog.html.

9. Tzezana,The Guide to the Future , 62ndash;4.?????????

10. Steiner,Automate This , 155.?????????

11.http:///news/science-environment-31623427; Elizabeth Lopatto, lsquo;Googlersquo;s AI Can Learn to Play Video Gamesrsquo;,The Verge , 25 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015,http:///2015/2/25/8108399/google-ai-deepmind-video-games; Volodymyr Mnih et al., lsquo;Human-Level Control through Deep Reinforcement Learningrsquo;,Nature , 26 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015,http:///nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14236.html?????????

14. Michael Lewis,Moneyball:The Art of Winning An Unfair Game (New York:W. W. Norton, 2003).同时参见2011年的电影《点球成金》(Moneyball),由贝尼特 middot;米勒(Bennett Miller)执导,布拉德 middot;皮特饰演比恩。?????????

15. Frank Levy and Richard Murnane,The New Division of Labor:How Computers are Creating the Next Job Market (Princeton:Princeton University Press, 2004); Dormehl,The Formula , 225ndash;6.?????????

16. Tom Simonite, lsquo;When Your Boss is an Uber Algoritmrsquo;,MIT Technology Review , 1 December 2015, retrieved 4 February 2016,https:///s/543946/when-your-boss-is-an-uber-algorithm/.

17. Simon Sharwood, lsquo;Software ;Appointed to Board;of Venture Capital Firmrsquo;,The Register , 18 May 2014, accessed 12 August 2015,http:///john-bates/imthe-chairman-of-the-bo_b_5440591.html; Colm Gorey, lsquo;Irsquo;m Afraid I Canrsquo;t Invest in That, Dave:AI Appointed to VC Funding Boardrsquo;,Silicon Republic , 15 May 2014, accessed 12 August 2015,https:///discovery/2014/05/15/im-afraid-i-cant-invest-in-that-dave-ai-appointed-to-vcfunding-board.

18. Steiner,Automate This , 89ndash;101; D. H. Cope,Comes the Fiery Night:2,000 Haiku by Man and Machine (Santa Cruz:Create Space, 2011).同时参见: Dormehl,The Formula , 174ndash;80, 195ndash;8, 200ndash;2, 216ndash;20; Steiner,Automate This , 75ndash;89.?????????

19. Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, lsquo;The Future of Employment:How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?rsquo;, 17 September 2013, accessed 12 August 2015,http:///world/artificial-pancreas-controlled-iphone-shows-promisediabetes-trial?singlepage=true?????????

23. Dormehl,The Formula , 7ndash;16.?????????

24. Martha Mendoza, lsquo;Google Develops Contact Lens Glucose Monitorrsquo;, Yahoo News, 17 January 2014, accessed 12 August 2015,http://news.yahoo.com/google-develops-contact-lens-glucose-monitor-000147894.html; Mark Scott, lsquo;Novartis Joins with Google to Develop Contact Lens That Monitors Blood Sugarrsquo;,New York Times , 15 July 2014, accessed 12 August 2015,http:///2014/07/16/business/international/novartis-joins-with-googleto-develop-contact-lens-to-monitor-blood-sugar.html?_r=0; Rachel Barclay, lsquo;Google Scientists Create Contact Lens to Measure Blood Sugar Level in Tearsrsquo;, Healthline, 23 January 2014, accessed 12 August 2015,http:///health-news/diabetes-google-develops-glucose-monitoring-contactlens-012314.

25. lsquo;Quantified Selfrsquo;,http://quantifiedself.com/; Dormehl,The Formula , 11ndash;16.?????????

26. Dormehl,The Formula , 91ndash;5; lsquo;Bedpostrsquo;,http://bedposted.co/2013/05/14/opinion/mymedical-choice.html.

29. lsquo;Google Flu Trendsrsquo;,http:///news/when-google-got-flu-wrong-1.12413; Miguel Helft, lsquo;Google Uses Searches to Track Flursquo;s Spreadrsquo;, New York Times, 11 November 2008, accessed 22 December 2014,http://msl1.mit.edu/furdlog/docs/nytimes/2008ndash;11ndash;11_nytimes_google_influenza.pdf; Samanth Cook et al., lsquo;Assessing Google Flu Trends Performance in the United States during the 2009 Influenza Virus A (H1N1) Pandemicrsquo;,PLOS One , 19 August 2011, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///ncomms/2013/131203/ncomms3837/full/ncomms3837.html.

30. Alistair Barr, lsquo;Googlersquo;s New Moonshot Project:The Human Bodyrsquo;,Wall Street Journal , 24 July 2014, accessed 22 December 2014,http:///articles/google-to-collect-data-to-define-healthy-human-1406246214; Nick Summers, lsquo;Google Announces Google Fit Platform Preview for Developersrsquo;, Next Web, 25 June 2014, accessed 22 December 2014,http://thenextweb.com/insider/2014/06/25/google-launches-google-fit-platform-preview-developers/.

31. Dormehl,The Formula , 72ndash;80.?????????

32. Wu Youyou, Michal Kosinski and David Stillwell, lsquo;Computer-Based Personality Judgements Are More Accurate Than Those Made by Humansrsquo;,PNAS 112:4 (2015), 1036ndash;40.?????????

33. 关于先知、代理人和君主的概念,参见: Bostrom,Superintelligence .?????????


35. Dormehl,The Formula , 206.?????????

36. World Bank,World Development Indicators 2012 (Washington DC:World Bank, 2012), 72,http://data.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/wdi-2012ndash;ebook.pdf.

37. Larry Elliott, lsquo;Richest 62 People as Wealthy as Half of Worldrsquo;s Population, Says Oxfamrsquo;,Guardian , 18 January 2016, retrieved 9 February 2016,http:///business/2016/jan/18/richest-62-billionaireswealthy-half-world-population-combined; Tami Luhby, lsquo;The 62 Richest People Have As Much Wealth As Half the Worldrsquo;,CNN Money , 18 January 2016, retrieved 9 February 2016,http://money.cnn.com/2016/01/17/news/economy/oxfam-wealth/.


1. lsquo;EM spectrumrsquo;.Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons,https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EM_spectru/2013/01/13/tech-prodigyand-internet-activist-aaron-swartz-commits-suicide; Todd Leopold, lsquo;How Aaron Swartz Helped Build the Internetrsquo;, CNN, 15 January 2013, 22 December 2014,http://edition.cnn.com/2013/01/15/tech/web/aaron-swartz-internet/; Declan McCullagh, lsquo;Swartz Didnrsquo;t Face Prison until Feds Took Over Case, Report Saysrsquo;, CNET, 25 January 2013, accessed 22 December 2014,http://news.cnet.com/8301ndash;13578_3ndash;57565927ndash;38/swartz-didnt-face-prison-until-feds-took-overcase-report-says/.

7. John Sousanis, lsquo;World Vehicle Population Tops 1 Billion Unitsrsquo;,Wardsauto , 15 August 2011, accessed 3 December 2015,http://wardsauto.com/news-analysis/world-vehicle-population-tops-1-billion-units.

8. lsquo;No More Woofrsquo;,https:///projects/no-more-woof?????????.